Disaster and Risk Reduction through Climate Smart Agriculture
Disaster risk reduction (also referred to as just disaster reduction) is defined as the concept and practice of reducing disaster risks through systematic efforts to analyse and manage the causal factors of disasters, including through reduced exposure to hazards, lessened vulnerability of people and property, wise management of land and the environment, and improved preparedness for adverse effects (UNISDR,2009). Climate-smart agriculture (CSA) builds upon sustainable agriculture approaches, using principles and processes of ecosystem. It is an integrated approach to managing landscapes, cropland, livestock, forests and fisheries–that address the interlinked challenges of food security and climate change. CSA aims to simultaneously achieve three outcomes which are
- Increased food productivity and income: Produce more food to improve food and nutrition security.
- Enhanced resilience: Improving the adaptive capacity of communities whilst reducing vulnerability to drought, pests, disease and other shocks.
- Reduced emissions: Seeking ways and opportunities of reducing and removing Green House Gases (GHGs), Improving carbon sinks by avoiding deforestation from agriculture.
Disaster reduction strategies include, primarily, vulnerability and risk assessment, as well as a number of institutional capacities and operational abilities. The assessment of the vulnerability of critical facilities, social and economic infrastructure, the use of effective early warning systems, and the application of many different types of scientific, technical, and other skilled abilities are essential features of disaster risk reduction. While distinct in scope, DRR and climate change adaptation share a common concern over climate-related extreme events. In the agriculture sector, they both aim to build resilient livelihoods which is one of the pillars of CSA, to enhance resilience so as to improve food security and achieve development goals. CSA supports the use of existing institutional arrangements, policies and incentives that enable and empower farmers to adopt climate-smart practices as well as recognizes the importance of improved coordination for collective decision making and action (Global Science Conference on Climate-Smart Agriculture, 2011; FAO, 2010a). Failure to Reduce Disasters and Risks through CSA, there are threats to livelihoods and family food security from which they need to be protected. Those practising CSA should make DRR a major element for it offers fresh opportunities of improving food security and promotes partnerships with established institutional arrangements